The discovery of a wine is of greater moment than the discovery of a constellation.
The universe is already full of stars.
— Anonymous

Every wine aficionado has experienced the disappointment of purchasing a $15 bottle of wine, only to uncork and aerate it discover it is undrinkable. Wine experts, known as Sommeliers, can accurately rate a wine’s quality from its taste and aroma. But unless you are lucky enough to befriend one, you can’t avail yourself of their opinion on the wine before you buy it. Though not a Sommelier, I know what I like in a wine. If…


No one deserves to be thrown into a Zoom waiting room.

But a new Zoom policy automatically sends participants to the waiting room for meetings that are not protected by a passcode.

Photo by Rostyslav Savchyn on Unsplash

This feature burdens meeting hosts with having to continuously monitor the waiting room during the meeting, admitting its pissed-off denizens, and dealing with their justifiable wrath.

Unless you do something about it!

Here is how to protect your meetings so that participants are not sent to the waiting room, and how to create a meeting invitation with an embedded passcode.

1. Change your Zoom meeting’s entry method from waiting room to passcode

  • Log in to your Zoom account.
  • In the…


Photo by David Clode on Unsplash

Software engineering is, in a nutshell, the art of writing and testing efficient, understandable, reliable, reusable, and maintainable code.

Here are a few simple rules to help set you on the road to good software engineering practice in Python programming.

Use descriptive variable names

For example, instead of variables named n and m, use informative names such as n_rows and n_columns; instead of nh, use n_hidden, instead of c, use n_out.

Never use single character names for important variables.
Why? Suppose you have a variable named n, and you find that for some good reason, you decide to rename n to n_iter. …


Photo by Crissy Jarvis on Unsplash

Suppose our data set has N examples (rows). Each tree in our random forest contains a bootstrap sample of the data set, which means a set of N samples randomly chosen (with replacement) from the data set. “With replacement” means that each random sample is chosen from the full data set (i.e. before choosing the next sample, we put back the sample we just chose).

Now the probability that a particular sample will not be chosen in a single random draw from the full data set is (N−1)/N. So the probability that a sample will not be chosen in a…


Joseph Catanzarite

The Naïve Bayes Classifier is perhaps the simplest machine learning classifier to build, train, and predict with. This post will show how and why it works. Part 1 reveals that the much-celebrated Bayes Rule is just a simple statement about joint and conditional probabilities. But its blandness belies astonishing power, as we’ll see in Parts 2 and 3, where we assemble the machinery of the Naïve Bayes Classifier. Part 4 is a brief discussion, and Parts 5 and 6 list the advantages and disadvantages of the Naïve Bayes Classifier. Part 7 is a summary, and Part 8 lists…

Joseph Catanzarite

“The roads by which men arrive at their insights into celestial matters seem to me almost as worthy of wonder as those matters in themselves.” — Johannes Kepler

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